I will use the term component or element when referring to a value inside a vector. --- ## Atomic vectors R has six atomic vector types:

.center[ `logical`, `double`, `integer`, `character`, `complex`, `raw` ] In this course we will mostly work with the first four. You will rarely work with the last two types - complex and raw. --- ## Conditional control flow Conditional (choice) control flow is governed by `if` and `switch()`. .pull-left[ ```{r eval=FALSE} if (condition) { # code to run # when condition is # TRUE } ``` ] .pull-right[ ```{r eval=FALSE} if (TRUE) { print("The condition must have been true!") } ``` ] --- ## `if` is not vectorized To remedy this potential problem of a non-vectorized `if`, you can 1. try to collapse the logical vector to a vector of length 1 - `any()` - `all()` 2. use a vectorized conditional function such as `ifelse()` or `dplyr::case_when()`. --- ## Loop types R supports three types of loops: `for`, `while`, and `repeat`. ```{r eval=FALSE} for (item in vector) { ## ## Iterate this code ## } ``` ```{r eval=FALSE} while (we_have_a_true_condition) { ## ## Iterate this code ## } ``` ```{r eval=FALSE} repeat { ## ## Iterate this code ## } ``` In the `repeat` loop we will need a `break` statement to end iteration. --- ## Concatenation Atomic vectors can be constructed using the concatenate, `c()`, function. ```{r} c(1,2,3) ``` ```{r} c("Hello", "World!") ``` ```{r} c(1,c(2, c(3))) ```

Atomic vectors are always flat. --- class: inverse, center, middle # More on atomic vectors --- ## Atomic vectors `typeof()` | `mode()` | `storage.mode()` :-----------|:------------|:---------------- logical | logical | logical double | numeric | double integer | numeric | integer character | character | character complex | complex | complex raw | raw | raw

- Function `typeof()` can handle any object - Functions `mode()` and `storage.mode()` allow for assignment --- ## Examples of type and mode .pull-left[ ```{r} typeof(c(T, F, T)) typeof(7) typeof(7L) typeof("S") typeof("Shark") ``` ] .pull-right[ ```{r} mode(c(T, F, T)) mode(7) mode(7L) mode("S") mode("Shark") ``` ] --- ## Atomic vector type observations - Numeric means an object of type integer or double. - Integers must be followed by an L, except if you use operator `:`. ```{r results='hold'} x <- 1:100 y <- as.numeric(1:100) c(typeof(x), typeof(y)) ``` ```{r results='hold'} object.size(x) object.size(y) ``` - There is no "string" type or mode, only "character". --- ## Logical predicates The `is.*(x)` family of functions performs a logical test as to whether `x` is of type `*`. For example, .pull-left[ ```{r} is.integer(T) is.double(pi) is.character("abc") is.numeric(1L) ``` ] .pull-right[ ```{r} is.integer(pi) is.double(pi) is.integer(1:10) is.numeric(1) ``` ] Function `is.numeric(x)` returns `TRUE` when `x` is integer or double. --- ## Coercion Previously, we looked at R's coercion hierarchy: .center[ `character` $\rightarrow$ `double` $\rightarrow$ `integer` $\rightarrow$ `logical` ] Coercion can happen implicitly through functions and operations; it can occur explicitly via the `as.*()` family of functions. --- ## Implicit coercion .pull-left[ ```{r} x <- c(T, T, F, F, F) mean(x) c(1L, 1.0, "one") 0 >= "0" (0 == "0") != "TRUE" ``` ] .pull-right[ ```{r} 1 & TRUE & 5.0 & pi 0 == FALSE (0 | 1) & 0 ``` ] --- ## Explicit coercion .pull-left[ ```{r} as.logical(sqrt(2)) as.character(5L) as.integer("4") as.integer("four") ``` ] .pull-right[ ```{r} as.numeric(FALSE) as.double(10L) as.complex(5.4) as.logical(as.character(3)) ``` ] --- ## Reserved words: `NA`, `NaN`, `Inf`, `-Inf` - `NA` is a logical constant of length 1 which serves a missing value indicator. - `NaN` stands for not a number. - `Inf`, `-Inf` are positive and negative infinity, respectively. --- ## Missing values - `NA` can be coerced to any other vector type except raw. .pull-left[ ```{r} typeof(NA) typeof(NA+1) typeof(NA+1L) ``` ] .pull-right[ ```{r} typeof(NA_character_) typeof(NA_real_) typeof(NA_integer_) ``` ] --- ## `NA` in, `NA` out (most of the time) ```{r} x <- c(-4, 0, NA, 33, 1 / 9) mean(x) NA ^ 4 log(NA) ``` -- Some of the base R functions have an argument `na.rm` to remove `NA` values in the calculation. ```{r} mean(x, na.rm = TRUE) ``` --- ## Special non-infectious `NA` cases ```{r} NA ^ 0 NA | TRUE NA & FALSE ``` --

Why does `NA / Inf` result in `NA`? --- ## Testing for `NA` Use function `is.na()` (vectorized) to test for `NA` values. .pull-left[ ```{r} is.na(NA) is.na(1) is.na(c(1,2,3,NA)) ``` ] .pull-right[ ```{r} any(is.na(c(1,2,3,NA))) all(is.na(c(1,2,3,NA))) ``` ] --- ## `NaN`, `Inf`, and `-Inf` .pull-left[ ```{r} -5 / 0 0 / 0 1/0 + 1/0 ``` ] .pull-right[ ```{r} 1/0 - 1/0 NaN / NA NaN * NA ``` ] - Functions `is.finite()` and `is.nan()` test for `Inf`, `-Inf`, and `NaN`, respectively. - Coercion is possible with the `as.*()` family of functions. Be careful with these; they may not always work as you expect. .small-text[ ```{r} as.integer(Inf) ``` ] ??? - Note that current implementations of R use 32-bit integers for integer vectors, so the range of representable integers is restricted to about +/-2*10^9: doubles can hold much larger integers exactly. - Computations involving `NaN` will return `NaN` or perhaps `NA`: which of those two is not guaranteed and may depend on the R platform --- ## Atomic vector properties - Homogeneous - Elements can have names - Elements can be indexed by name or position - Matrices, arrays, factors, and date-times are built on top of atomic vectors by adding attributes. .pull-left[ ```{r} x <- c(-3:2) attributes(x) x ``` ] .pull-right[ ```{r} attr(x, which = "dim") <- c(2, 3) attributes(x) x ``` ] --- ## Exercises 1. What is the type of each vector below? Check your answer in R. ```{r eval=FALSE} c(4L, 16, 0) c(NaN, NA, -Inf) c(NA, TRUE, FALSE, "TRUE") c(pi, NaN, NA) ```

2. Write a conditional statement that prints "Can't proceed NA or NaN present!" if a vector contains `NA` or `NaN`. Test your code with vectors `x` and `y` below. ```{r} x <- NA y <- c(1:5, NaN, NA, sqrt(3)) ``` ??? ## Solutions 1. .solution[ ```{r} typeof(c(4L, 16, 0)) typeof(c(NaN, NA, -Inf)) typeof(c(NA, TRUE, FALSE, "TRUE")) typeof(c(pi, NaN, NA)) ``` ] 2. .solution[ ```{r} x <- NA y <- c(1:5, NaN, NA, sqrt(3)) if (any(is.na(x))) {print("Can't proceed NA or NaN present!")} if (any(is.na(y))) {print("Can't proceed NA or NaN present!")} ``` ] --- class: inverse, center, middle # Generic vectors --- ## Lists Lists are generic vectors, in that they are 1 dimensional (i.e. have a length) and can contain any type of R object. They are heterogeneous structures. ```{r} list("A", c(TRUE,FALSE), (1:4)/2, function(x) x^2) ``` --- ## Structure For complex objects, function `str()` will display the structure in a compact form. ```{r} str(list("A", c(TRUE,FALSE), (1:4)/2, function(x) x^2)) ``` --- ## Coercion and testing Lists can be complex structures and even include other lists. ```{r eval=FALSE} x <- list("a", list("b", c("c", "d"), list(1:5))) ``` ```{r eval=FALSE} > str(x) List of 2 #<< $ : chr "a" #<< $ :List of 3 #<< ..$ : chr "b" ..$ : chr [1:2] "c" "d" ..$ :List of 1 .. ..$ : int [1:5] 1 2 3 4 5 ``` --- ## Coercion and testing Lists can be complex structures and even include other lists. ```{r eval=FALSE} x <- list("a", list("b", c("c", "d"), list(1:5))) ``` ```{r eval=FALSE} > str(x) List of 2 $ : chr "a" $ :List of 3 #<< ..$ : chr "b" #<< ..$ : chr [1:2] "c" "d" #<< ..$ :List of 1 #<< .. ..$ : int [1:5] 1 2 3 4 5 ``` --- ## Coercion and testing Lists can be complex structures and even include other lists. ```{r} x <- list("a", list("b", c("c", "d"), list(1:5))) ``` ```{r eval=FALSE} > str(x) List of 2 $ : chr "a" $ :List of 3 ..$ : chr "b" ..$ : chr [1:2] "c" "d" ..$ :List of 1 #<< .. ..$ : int [1:5] 1 2 3 4 5 #<< ``` -- ```{r} typeof(x) ``` You can test for a list and coerce an object to a list with `is.list()` and `as.list()`, respectively. --- ## Flattening Function `unlist()` will turn a list into an atomic vector. Keep R's coercion hierarchy in mind if you use this function. ```{r} y <- list(1:5, pi, c(T, F, T, T)) unlist(y) ```

-- ```{r} x <- list("a", list("b", c("c", "d"), list(1:5))) unlist(x) ``` --- ## List properties - Lists are heterogeneous. - Lists elements can have names. ```{r} list(stocks = c("AAPL", "BA", "PFE", "C"), eps = c(1.1, .9, 2.3, .54), index = c("DJIA", "NASDAQ", "SP500")) ``` - Lists can be indexed by name or position. - Lists let you extract sublists or a specific object. --- ## Exercise Create a list based on the JSON product order data below. ``` [ { "id": { "oid": "5968dd23fc13ae04d9000001" }, "product_name": "sildenafil citrate", "supplier": "Wisozk Inc", "quantity": 261, "unit_cost": "$10.47" }, { "id": { "oid": "5968dd23fc13ae04d9000002" }, "product_name": "Mountain Juniperus ashei", "supplier": "Keebler-Hilpert", "quantity": 292, "unit_cost": "$8.74" } ] ``` ??? ## Solution .solution[ ```{r eval=FALSE} list( list( id = list(oid = "5968dd23fc13ae04d9000001"), product_name = "sildenafil citrate", supplier = "Wisozk Inc", quantity = 261, unit_cost = "$10.47" ), list( id = list(oid = "5968dd23fc13ae04d9000002"), product_name = "Mountain Juniperus ashei", supplier = "Keebler-Hilpert", quantity = 292, unit_cost = "$8.74" ) ) ``` ] --- class: inverse, center, middle # Functions --- ## Fundamentals A function is comprised of arguments (formals), body, and environment. The first two will be our main focus as we use and develop these objects. ```{r, include=FALSE} f <- function(x, y, z) { # combine words paste(x, " ", y, " ", z) } f(x = "just", y = "three", z = "words") ``` .pull-left[ ```{r} f <- function(x, y, z) { # combine words paste(x, " ", y, " ", z) } f(x = "just", y = "three", z = "words") ``` ] .pull-right[ ```{r} formals(f) body(f) environment(f) ``` ] --- ## Exiting Most functions end by returning a value (implicitly or explicitly) or in error. **Implicit return** ```{r} centers <- function(x) { c(mean(x), median(x)) } ``` **Explicit return** ```{r} standardize <- function(x) { stopifnot(length(x) > 1) x_stand <- (x - mean(x)) / sd(x) return(x_stand) } ``` Using return makes your function easier to read and interpret. R functions can return any object. --- ## Calls Function calls involve the function's name and, at a minimum, values to its required arguments. Arguments can be given values by 1. position ```{r} z <- 1:30 mean(z, .3, FALSE) ``` -- 2. name ```{r} mean(x = z, trim = .3, na.rm = FALSE) ``` -- 3. partial name matching ```{r} mean(x = z, na = FALSE, t = .3) ``` --- ## Call style The best choice is ```{r} mean(z, trim = .3) ``` Leave the argument's name out for the commonly used (required) arguments, and always specify the argument names for the optional arguments. --- ## Scope R uses lexical scoping. This provides a lot of flexibility, but it can also be problematic if a user is not careful. Let's see if we can get an idea of the scoping rules. ```{r, eval=FALSE} y <- 1 f <- function(x){ y <- x ^ 2 return(y) } f(x = 3) #<< y #<< ``` What is the result of `f(x = 3)` and `y`? ??? .solution[ ```{r} y <- 1 f <- function(x){ y <- x ^ 2 return(y) } f(x = 3) y ``` ] --- ```{r eval=FALSE} y <- 1 z <- 2 f <- function(x){ y <- x ^ 2 g <- function() { c(x, y, z) } # closes body of g() g() } # closes body of f() f(x = 3) #<< c(y, z) #<< ``` What is the result of `f(x = 3)` and `c(y, z)`? -- R first searches for a value associated with a name in the current environment. If the object is not found the search is widened to the next higher scope. ??? .solution[ ```{r} y <- 1 z <- 2 f <- function(x){ y <- x ^ 2 g <- function() { c(x, y, z) } # closes body of g() g() } # closes body of f() f(x = 3) c(y, z) ``` ] --- ## Lazy evaluation .pull-left[ Arguments to R functions are not evaluated until needed. ```{r, error=TRUE} f <- function(a, b, x) { print(a) print(b ^ 2) 0 * x } f(5, 6) ``` ] .middle.pull-right[ ![](images/sloth.png) ] --- ## Four function forms | Form | Description | Example(s) | |:-----------:|:----------------------------:|:-------------------------:| | Prefix | name comes before arguments | `log(x, base = exp(1))` | | Infix | name between arguments | `+`, `%>%`, `%/%` | | Replacement | replace values by assignment | `names(x) <- c("a", "b")` | | Special | all others not defined above | `[[`, `for`, `break`, `(` | --- ## Help To get help on any function, type `?fcn_name` in your console, where `fcn_name` is the function's name. For infix, replacement, and special functions you will need to surround the function with backticks. ```{r} ?sd ``` ```{r} ?`for` ``` ```{r} ?`names<-` ``` ```{r} ?`%/%` ```

Using function `help()` is an alternative to `?`. --- ## Best practices - Write a function when you have copied code more than twice. - Try to use a verb for your function's name. - Keep argument names short but descriptive. - Add code comments to explain the "why" of your code. - Link a family of functions with a common prefix: `pnorm()`, `pbinom()`, `ppois()`. - Keep data arguments first, then other required arguments, then followed by default arguments. The `...` argument can be placed last. --- .middle[

- Everything that exists is an object. - Everything that happens is a function call.

John Chambers